Monday, November 29, 2021

All Types of Data Structure You Should Know in Programming Languages

Data Type: A bunch of qualities along with tasks (determined as information yield conduct).

Data Structure: Data structure is a specific method of arranging and storing data in computers to execute more efficient operations on the data. Data structures are used in a wide range of fields, including computer science and software engineering. This article deals with a detailed study of Types of data structure.

Almost every program or software system built uses data structures. Furthermore, data structures are part of the computer science and software engineering basics. When it comes to software engineering interview questions, this is the topic of discussion. Consequently, as developers, we need to be well versed in types of data structures.

Some Data Types: Integer, Complex number, String, Data, Person, Employee, Paragraph, Bond, Ring, Staque, Dictionary.

A data type may be created from almost any term.

Using Structures to Implement Types:

In general, you can use:

Any sequence using an array.

Single-linked lists in stacks and queues.

With double-linked lists, you can create lists and searches.

Arrays in trees and priority queues.

Etc.

Examples: Even if you have a data type called stack, you may also have data structures such as Linkedstack, Arraystock. The stack is an interface in Java, while LinkedIn and ArrayStock are abstract (concrete) classes with full specifications. Let us dive into types of data structure.

Types Of Data Structure In C:

01. Array:

types of data structure

> Using C to Create Linear Data Structures.

> Elements are stored in close memory areas.

> Using the index, you can randomly retrieve items.

> Stores homogeneous components or comparable ones.

Syntax:

> Statement of range

> varname [size] datatype;

> It is also possible to perform both declaration and initiation at the same time.

> Datatype varname [] = {ele1, ele2, ele3, ele4};

02. Linked List:

> Linear data structure.

> Elements can be saved according to the amount of available memory.

> Elements can only be accessed in a straight line.

> Stores homogeneous components or comparable ones.

> In terms of size, dynamic.

> Very easy to insert and remove.

> The key, often called the head, is the starting element or node.

types of data structure

03. Stack:

> It’s a form of linear data structure that uses C

> Follows the LIFO principle: Last one in, first one out.

> The top components are the only ones that can be accessed.

> From the top, insertions and deletions are made.

> For example, a stack of dishes, chairs, and so on.

types of data structure

04 .Queue:

> Using C to Create Linear Data Structures

> FIFO (First In, First Out) is followed.

> Insertion is possible from the back end.

> The front end may be used to delete items.

> For example, a line at a ticket desk or a bus terminal.

types-of-data-structure

05. Binary Tree:

> Using C to create hierarchical data structures

> The root of the tree is the top member.

> In a binary tree, there are only two children per node.

> Using the index, you can randomly retrieve items.

> For example, consider the file system architecture.

> Commonly used methods of travelling are:

preorder(root): print-left-right

postorder(root): left-right-print

inorder(root): left-print-right

06. Binary Search Tree:

> A binary tree with a constraint added to it

> Restriction:

The left child must be less than the root node at all times.

The correct child has to be bigger than the root node at all times.

> A binary tree is considerably less efficient than insertion, deletion, and search.

07. Heap:

> A complete binary tree may be represented as a Binary Heap array.

> The element Arr[0] will be considered as the root.

> length(A) – array size

> Heapsize(A) – heap size

> When dealing with minimum and maximum values, this term is commonly employed.

types-of-data-structure
Max-Min Heap

08. Hashing:

> It uses a unique hash function.

> The hash function converts an element into a storage address.

> This ensures that access is available at all times.

> Conflict resolution methods are used to deal with conflicts.

> Technology to resolve collisions:

Chain

Speaking in Open

09. Graph:

> It is essentially a collection of edges and vertices.

> Illustration of a graph
G (V, E): where V (G) represents the collection of vertices and E (G) represents the collection of edges.

> There are two types of graphs: directed and undirected.

> There are two types of graphs: linked and disjunct.

Types Of Data Structure In Python:

Let us now see the various types of data structures used in python.

01.Hash tables, dictionaries and maps:

> dict: Your go-to dictionary.

> collections.OrderDict: Keep in mind the order in which the keys should be inserted

> collections. Default.edit: For missing keys, return default values.

> collections.chainmap: As a Single Mapping, Search Multiple Dictionaries.

> types.MappingProxyType: Making Read-Only Dictionaries with a Wrapper.

02. Array Data Structure:

> list: Dynamic Arrays with Mutable Values

> tuple: Variable-Valued Dynamic Arrays

> array.array: Arrays with Basic Types

> str: Unicode Characters in Immutable Arrays

> bytes: Immutable Single-Byte Arrays

> byte array: Single-Byte Mutable Arrays

03. Records, Scructs, And data transfer objects:

> dict: Common data objects

> tuple: Unchanging groups of objects

> Write a custom class: For more work and control

> dataclasses.data class: Python 3.7+ Data Classes

> collections.namedtuple: Convenient Data Objects

> Typing. Named Tuples: Better Named Taples.

> Struct: Serialized C Structures.

> types. SimpleNamespace: Fancy Attribute Access

> Records, Structs, and Data Objects in Python: Summary

04. Multisets and Sets:

> set: Your All-Time Favorite

> Immutable Sets (frozenset)

> Multisets are a type of collection.

> Summary of Python Sets and Multisets

05. Stacks of books (LIFOs):

> Simple, Built-In Stacks is a list of simple, built-in stacks.

> Fast and Robust Stacks with collections. deque

06. Queuing (FIFOs):

> list: Insanely Slow Queues

> Fast and Robust Queues using collections.deque queue.

> Queue: Parallel Computing Locking Semantics

07.priority queues:

> list: Manually Sorted Queues

> heap: Binary Heaps on a List

You might also like: Northwestern data sciences – a complete guide for data science passionate 2021

Types Of Data Structure In Java:

Let us now see the various types of data structures in Java.

01. Enumeration:

Although the Enumeration interface is not a data structure in and of itself, it is essential in the context of other data structures. The Enumeration interface specifies a method for retrieving consecutive elements from a data structure.

Enumeration, for example, defines the next element method, which is used to obtain the next element in a data structure with many components.

02. The BitSet:

The BitSet class implements a collection of bits or flags that may be individually set and cleared.

This class comes in handy when you need to keep track of a set of Boolean values; all you have to do is assign a bit to each value and set or clear it as needed.

03. The Vector:

The Vector class is identical to a standard Java array, except that it may expand to accept more members as needed.

A Vector object’s elements may be retrieved through an index into the vector, much like an array.

04. The Stack:

The Stack class provides a LIFO (last-in-first-out) element stack.

A stack may be considered a vertical stack of items; as you add a new element, it is placed on top of the previous ones.

When you remove an element from the stack, it is removed from the top. To put it another way, the last piece you added to the stack is the first to be removed.

05. The Dictionary:

The Dictionary class is an abstract class that defines a key-value mapping data structure.

This comes in handy when you need to retrieve data using a specific key rather than an integer index.

06. The Hashtag:

The Hashtable class allows you to organise data using a user-defined key structure.

For example, rather than storing and sorting data based on a person’s name, an address list hash table might store and sort data based on a key such as a ZIP code.

The meaning of keys in hash tables relies on the hash table’s intended use and the data it includes.

07. The Properties:

Properties is a Hashtable subclass. It’s used to keep track of lists of values with a String as the key and a string as the value.

Many additional Java classes utilise the Properties class. It’s the kind of object returned by the System, for example. When obtaining environmental values, use getProperties( ).

Types Of Data Structure Primitive And Non-Primitive:

Let us now discuss the various types of data structures both primitive and non-primitive.

01. Primitive Data Type:

The programming language defines a basic data type. It has no extra methods, and the size and type of variable values are given.

In Java, data types are divided into four categories: int, float, character, and boolean. However, there are eight data kinds in all. The following are the details:

  • boolean data type
  • byte data type
  • char data type
  • short data type
  • int data type
  • long data type
  • float data type
  • double data type

02.Non-Primititvity data type:

Non-primitive data types are referred to as reference types because they are related to objects—examples of strings, arrays, classes, interfaces, and other primitive types.

Let’s take a quick look at these non-primitive data types.

01. Strings:

A string is a collection of characters. On the other hand, a string in Java is an object that represents a sequence of characters. The java. Lang package. A string object is created using the String class.

02. Arrays:

Arrays are homogenous data structures that are implemented as objects in Java. Arrays are data structures that hold one or more values of a certain data type and allow for indexed access to those values. The index of an array element is used to access it.

03. Classes:

In Java, a class is a blueprint that contains all your data. To define the behaviour of an object, a class consists of fields (variables) and methods.

04. Interface:

A class contains interface methods and variables, but by default, the methods specified in the interface are abstract (method signature only, not body).

Types Of Data Structure In R:

To get the most out of the R language, you’ll need a solid grasp of the fundamental data types and data structures, as well as how to manipulate them.

Data structures are crucial to comprehend since they are the things you will work within R daily. One of the most typical sources of difficulty for novices is dealing with object conversions.

In R, everything is an object.

There are six fundamental data kinds in R. (There is also raw, which will not be covered in this session, in addition to the five listed below.)

  • character
  • a number (real or decimal)
  • integer
  • logical
  • complex

Types Of Data Structure In C++:

01. Arrays:

An array is a fixed-size structure that may store objects of the same data type. Because arrays are indexed, they may be accessed at any time. In many computer languages, an array is typically given as a native data structure.

02. Linked Lists:

A linked list is a sequential structure formed by a series of elements that are connected to each other in a linear manner. To navigate this data structure, you only need to know one end of the chain. It is often not useful to use the array in situations where the size is variable unless the data is randomly retrieved (extensions cause more copy time and use more memory if you do not execute the compression operation). As a result, the linked list can often be thought of as a data structure that allows for resizing and serial access.

03. Stacks:

A stack is a LIFO (Last In First Out) structure, which means that the element put last may be retrieved first. Despite having a distinct behaviour, this data structure can be thought of as a derivation of the linked list with only a head or access to the top member.

04. Queues:

The queue is a FIFO (first-in, first-out) structure, which means that the first inserted element can be accessed first. This can be thought of as the inverse of the stock. In other words, this is a list from a link, where we add from one end and read from the other. It mimics the driveway lineup in real life.

Differrent Types Of Trees In Data Structure:

YouTube video

01. General Tree:

A tree is referred to as a generic tree if its hierarchy is not constrained. In the General Tree, each node can have an unlimited number of offspring. All other trees are subsets of the tree.

02. Binary Tree:

The binary tree is a type of tree in which each parent has at least two offspring. The children are referred to as the left and right youngsters. This tree is more popular than the majority of others. Various trees, such as the AVL tree, BST (Binary Search Tree), RBT tree, and others, are employed when specific restrictions and features are applied in a Binary tree.

03. Binary Search Tree:

types-of-data-structure

Binary Search Tree (BST) is a binary tree extension that has several limitations. In BST, the value of the left child of the node should be less than or equal to its parent value, while the value of the right child should always be greater than or equal to the value of the parent. The binary search tree is suitable for search operations to accurately determine whether the value at each node is in the left or right sub-tree.

04. AVL Tree:

types-of-data-structure

AVL tree is an auto-balancing binary search tree. The term AVL is given in honour of the inventors Adelson-Velshi and Landis. It was the first dynamically balanced tree. For each node in the AVL tree, a balancing factor is assigned, whether or not the tree is balanced. The children’s node height is at the highest 1. The right balancing factor in the AVL tree is 1, 0 and -1. If a new tree node is present, it is rotated to guarantee its equilibrium. It is rotated then.

05. Red black Tree:

types-of-data-structure

Another type of self-balancing tree is red and black. The red-black name is given according to the characteristics of the red-black tree, with the red-black tree painted red or black at each node. The balance of the forest is maintained. Although this tree is not perfectly balanced, the search process requires only O (log n) time. When new nodes are introduced into a red-black tree, the nodes are rotated to retain the features of the red-black tree.

06. N-ary Tree:

In this form of node tree, the maximum number of children is N. A binary tree is a 2-year tree, as in any binary tree node at most 2 children. A full N-ary tree is a tree in which children of the node are either 0 or N.

All Types of Data Structure You Should Know in Programming Languages

I am pursuing an MCA (MASTER OF COMPUTER APPLICATION) from IGNOU. I did my BSc honors degree from Kanpur University. I also have a certificate of “fundamental of digital marketing” by Google and “fundamental of remote sensing” by IIRS. I am keenly interested in the Data Science and data analytics field. That is why I write articles on this kind of topic. I have been working as a blogger for Edu Data Online web since January 2021.

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All Types of Data Structure You Should Know in Programming Languages

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I am pursuing an MCA (MASTER OF COMPUTER APPLICATION) from IGNOU. I did my BSc honors degree from Kanpur University. I also have a certificate of “fundamental of digital marketing” by Google and “fundamental of remote sensing” by IIRS. I am keenly interested in the Data Science and data analytics field. That is why I write articles on this kind of topic. I have been working as a blogger for Edu Data Online web since January 2021.